ENPP1 121Q functional variant enhances susceptibility to coronary artery disease in South Indian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

S. Sumi1 , Surya Ramachandran1 , V RamanKutty2, Maulin M. Patel1, T. N. Anand2,Ajit S Mullasari3,C. C. Kartha1

Mol Cell Biochem. 2017 May 11. doi: 10.1007/s11010-017-3057-2.

Abstract

Insulin resistance is associated with endothelial dysfunction and ensuing cardiovascular diseases in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. ENPP1 is a key modulator of insulin signaling and its polymorphism, K121Q, increases the potency to competitively inhibit insulin receptor binding. We investigated the association of ENPP1 121Q variant with coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with and without T2DM in South Indian population. Our study was conducted in 913 subjects: 198 patients with CAD, 284 patients in whom T2DM and CAD co-exists, 160 patients with T2DM and no CAD history, and 271 healthy volunteers. Genotyping was performed using PCR–RFLP and PCR-DNA sequencing. Genotype frequency of ENPP1 121Q was higher in disease groups compared to healthy subjects (p\0.05). T2DM patients who carried polymorphic AC/CC genotypes were at 12.8- fold enhanced risk to CAD (95% CI 4.97–37.18, p\0.01). Moreover we observed that 121Q, both in heterozygous and homozygous polymorphic states, was a risk factor for CAD without diabetes (OR 4.15, p\0.01). 121Q variant was associated with T2DM patients with no CAD history too, but the risk was statistically insignificant after multivariate logistic regression analysis (OR 2.32, p[0.05). We conclude that ENPP1 121Q variant is associated with increased risk for CAD in patients with T2DM in South Indian population. We also report that 121Q variant of ENPP1 was an independent risk factor for CAD irrespective of diabetic milieu. Factors which enhance insulin resistance increase the risk for onset and progression of coronary atherosclerosis irrespective of a diabetic background.