Human Reproductive Health is a major issue that requires both global and local attention. Unintended pregnancy remains a major problem both in the developed and the developing world. Recent survey data points out that more than a quarter of pregnancies worldwide are unintended. Moreover, between 2000 and 2005 nearly 700,000 women died and many more experienced illness, injury, and disability as a result of unplanned pregnancy.Even in cases in which maternal health is maintained, an unintended pregnancy can cause significant harm for families and communities-emotional, social, and economic. Dual protection from pregnancy and HIV/AIDS infection remains elusive, while the pandemic of HIV/AIDS continues to devastate sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia. The cost of contraceptive products and the availability and adoption of existing contraceptive methods still remain challenges to international family planning efforts. At the same time there is increasing recognition that a wider range of modalities is needed to address the changing contraceptive needs of the populations of the world across the reproductive life cycle. This unmet need has not been a major priority of the research community and pharmaceutical industry.
- World's 1.3 billion women between the ages of 15-45 experienced more than 1.2 billion pregnancies in the last 6 years.
- Of these, more than 300 million (more than one quarter) were unintended.
- 700,000 died as a result of unintended pregnancies.
- The number of women at risk of unplanned pregnancies will grow as the world's population continues to rise.
Human infertility is another major cause of concern in medico-social terms. There is much that we do not understand about the molecular basis of human infertility, caused by possible impaired spermatogenesis, defective sperm function, defects in delivery of sperm, hormonal aspects, ovulatory issues, failure in early embryo development, implantation failure, etc. A major subset of human infertility has a genetic origin. An understanding of the genetic basis of human infertility allows for the appropriate counseling of patients about treatment options and risks to their potential offspring.
- Infertility affects 25 percent of couples in their mid-twenties or early thirtees, and more than 40 percent of couples in their late thirties and early forties.
- For many couples, conception moves from the bedroom to the laboratory: in the future, 30 percent of babies may be conceived using IVF
- However, there are an additional 6 million infertile couples in the United States who cannot conceive without medical help.
- Only 60,000 in-vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles are performed each year. Fewer than one percent of infertile couples who need treatment receive it.
- We have not paid attention to the undesired transfer of "infertility genes" into the offspring and to the possibilities of replacement of infertility genes during IVF.